Henrik the Great asked me to dust off what I know about the curriculum and practice of private tutoring. While I don’t know much, I do know the basics and the big names.
I assume you read my excerpts from Jesuit educational ideals already. which offers some pointers.
For a detailed example of an entire curriculum see Jesuit Education: Its History and Principles (1904) which, while a lackluster book for several reasons, does include a detailed course of study which would be fairly standard not just among Catholic but also Anglican and Lutheran teachers during the 17th – 19th century. For example, John Stuart Mill’s early education was very much in the same vein.
Here are the big works on pedagogy and curriculum:
Aristotle (all, but especially)
Cicero, Ad Herrenium, which lays out the entire course rhetoric and persuasion for the next 1800 years. It is also the first place that the use of deep memory techniques is briefly discussed.
Quintilian, Institutio Oratoria, which reviews Cicero’s course and extends the ideas and practice.
Marcus Aurelius mentions in his meditations mentions the quality of teaching of many of his tutors, especially the method of writing dialogues on alternate positions. This method was popular enough that many early Christian writings are in dialogue form as well.
Cassiodorus, Institutes of Secular Learning
Peter Lombard’s Sentences were the standard method and textbook for 400 years.
Aquinas On the Teacher. Of course, Aquinas’s Summae tried to make a replacement for the sentences, but was not successful until well after his death (three centuries!).
John Buridan’s Summulae de Dialectica was a standard textbook on Logic and logical method for a couple hundred years.
I do not know of any medieval source who discussed and presented scholastic pedagogical method explicitly, although it was very influential. I need to check what would have been the standard reference.
Petrus Paulus Vergilius, De Ingenuis Moribus frequently translated as The New Education. Refocuses education on service to civic life.
Aeneas Silvius, On Education
Erasmus De Ratione Studii, On the Method of Study, and Ciceronianus, which covers how he thinks schooling can excel beyond mere memorization and imitation.
I think it is easy to underestimate how much sway these older authors had on 17th-19th century education. They were giants.
I have some takeaways from these readings and my own experience being classically educated but am not yet able to fully articulate them.
I am not well aware how tutoring curricula changed in the Enlightenment. I wouldn’t count the differences in method to be great, although the content certainly shifted to include more mathematics. The personal libraries of the great thinkers reflect remarkably little change from the interests of the Renaissance Humanists, as far as I know. Though, I am happy to be corrected.